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Qormo yar oo hogetusaale u ah bulshada soomaaliyeed ee hadda la daalaa dhacaysa dhaqangelinta qoondada haweenka ee 30 % si qasab ah (binding qouta law).

Waxaa sanadkan, 2016, 10 sano jirsaday, sharciga qoondada haweenka qasabka ah ee dalka Norway laga hirgaliyey 2006-kii. Sharcigan waxuu dhigayey in gudiga shirkadaha waaweyn iyo hay’addaha (institutions) 40 % haween laga dhigo, shirkadii aan sidaas aan yeelinna muddo 2 sano gudaheed ah (aan u hogaansamin sharcigan) la dumiyo oo awood loo adeegsado. Sharcigan oo noociisa ugu horreeyey caalamka, ayaa noqday sharci ahmiyad weyn u leh dhamaan wadamada qaarada Yurub iyo caalamkaba marka laga hadlayo doorka haweenka. Sidaas daraadeed ayaa aqoonyahanadu ka sameeyeen cilmi-baaris. Mid ka mida cilmi-baaristaas waxaa lagu daabacay cilmigeyska, Quarterly Journal of Economics oo ay soo saarto Oxford University, sanadkii hore (2015). Aqoonyahanadan waxa ay daraasaynayeen dhamaan shirkadihii dhaqangeliyey sharcigan ee gudiyadooda ka dhigay 40 % haween iyo natiijadii ka soo baxday isbedelkaas la sameeyey. Waxa ay dhaheen sidan:

kuraasta_qoondada_haweynka

We find that the constraint imposed by the quota caused a significant drop in the stock price at the announcement of the law and a large decline in Tobin’s Q over the following years, consistent with the idea that firms choose boards to maximize value. The quota led to younger and less experienced boards, increases in leverage and acquisitions, and deterioration in operating performance.”

Waxaa cilmi-baaristan ka soo baxday in dhamaan shirkadihii hirgeliyey sharcigan qasabka ah uu dhaqaalo burbur ku yimi, sababtuna ay tahay markii gudigii shirkada isbedel lagu sameeyey oo xubnihii hore u joogay laga eryey shirkada si boos loogu helo xubnaha cusub ee dhediga ah, kuwaasoo da’ ahaan iyo khibrad ahaanba ka hooseeyey xubnihii jagooyinka looga saaray. Haweenka laga hadlayaa maaha kuwo baadiye laga keenee, waa haween jaamacaddo aad u horemarsan ka soo baxay oo aqoon leh khibrad shaqo na leh.

Wasiiradda dalka Norway ee Ganacsiga, Monica Mæland, oo laga waraystay sharcigan natiijada ka soo baxday iyo in dowladdu qoondada haweenka 40 % ka sii kordhinayso, waxa ay tiri:

Sharciga 40 % natiijadii laga filayey ma yeelan, weli ragga ayaa jaggooyinka culus ee muhiimka ah ku fadhiya guud ahaan shirkadaha iyo ganacsiga, qorshahana nooguma jirto in aan qoondada haweenka sii kordhino”.

Barefasoor Steen Thomsen oo ka tirsan Copenhagen Bussiness School (CBS) oo isna ka mida aqoonyahanada cilmi-baarista ku sameeyey sharcigan, ayaa ka mida dadka sharcigan fashil ku tilmaamay, waxuuna hadalkiisa u dhigay sidan:

Dhaqaalaha dalka Norway dhulka lama sinmin oo xoog uma burburin, sidoo kalena aad uma kicin oo kama sare marin dhaqaalaha wadamada kale. Khibrada dalka Norway waxa ay natusaysaa keliya in nidaamku xamili karo in qoondooyin qasab ah la hirgelin karo haddii doonidu taas tahay, laakiin tirada haweenka ee gudiyada ku jirta malaha natiijo dhab ah oo la taaban karo, qoondadu keliya waxa ay caqabad ku tahay dadkii maalgashan lahaa shirkada oo aan u dooran karin gudiga shirkada sida ay iyagu rabaan. Qoondada shuruudda ah uma arko shay caafimaad ku jiro’’.

Barefasoorad Nina Smith oo ka tirsan jaamacadda Arhus University oo cilmiga dhaqaalaha ku taqasustay, ahna haweeney saamayn weyn ku leh siyaasadda dhaqaalaha wadanka Denmark, sidoo kale xubin gudi ka ah shirkado aad u waa weyn, ah haweeney aad ugu ololaysa kaalinta haweenka ee suuqa shaqada iyo gelitaankooda jagooyinka sarsare shirkadaha iyo hay’addaha dalka, ayaa iyana ka mida aqoonyahana diiradda saaray sharciga qoondada qasabka ah ee haweenka iyo mirihii ka dhashay. Barefasoorad Nina Smith sidan ayeey uga faallootay:

Qodobka 1aad – daraasooyinka la sameeyey si guud oo cad iskuma waafaqsana waxa ay soo kordhisay tirada haweenka gudiyada ku jira – tan koobaad cilmi baaristu way filiqsan tahay weli waxaana lagu kala sameeyey wadamo aad u badan dhaqamo aad u kala duwanna leh, tan labaadna waxaan weli la helin cadayn dhab ah waxa ay haweenku ka jinsi ahaan ku soo kordhin karaan gudiyada. Marka baaritaanada qaar ay ina tusayaan in shirkadaha gudiyadoodu haweenku ku jiro ay horumar dhaqaale sameeyaan, taas kama dhigna lamana dhihi karo haweenka ayaa ka jinsi ahaan libinta iska leh, waxaa dhici karta in shirkadahaas yihiin kuwo horumar dhaqaale sameeyey kadibna iyagu ku dhiiraday in ay haweenka gudiyadooda ku soo daraan.

Qodobka 2aad – markii la daraaseeyey qiyamka iyo habdhaqanka haweenka gudiyada ku jira, kuwaasoo kala jooga wadamo badan oo kala duwan, waxaa soo baxday in haweenkaas ay ragga u eegyihiin in ka badan inta ay haweenka u eegyihiin – sidaas daraadeed haweenkaas gudiyada kuma soo kordhinayaan qiyam iyo habdhaqankii dumarnimo.

Qodobka 3aad – Si gaara haddii loo eego habdhaqanka gudiyada shirkadaha haweenku ku jiraan, ayaa waxaa la ogaaday in shirkadba shirkada ay ka haween badan tahay (gudiyada), ay ka hor eryi ogtahay gudoomiyaha shirkada haddii culus soo waajaho shirkada, dhanka kalena ay kaga gaabis badan tahay in ay qaadato go’aamo adag oo dhimis ah xilliga dhaqaale xumaantu jirto.

Qodobka 4aad – si cad oo la taaban karo looma xaqiijin karo faa’idada ay shirkadaha waaweyn ee dalka Norway ka heleen isu dheeli tirka haweenka iyo ragga gudiyada ku jira ee lagu keenay qoondada qasabka ah. Waxa keliya ee si cad noogu cad waa in, 1) shirkadihii dhaqangeliyey qoondada qasabka ah uu dhaqaalahoodu hoos u dhacay ayna ugu sii darnaayeen kuwii tirada ugu badan bedelay ee haweenka ku bedeshay iyo 2) in haweenkaas gudiyada lagu daray khibraddooda gudiyada ay ka hoosaysay raggii ay bedeleen.

Qoodobka 5aad – qoondadu cadaalad uma samaynayso haweenka guud ahaan ee qaar yar oo kooban oo inta ladan ah ayaa magaca haweenka wax ku helaya.

Qodobka 6aad – qodobka ugu danbeeya ahna kan iigu muhiimsan – wax xiriir ah, haba yaraadee, kama dhaxeeyaan tirada haweenka qoondada lagu keeno oo gudiga shirkadaha ku badan iyo horumarka dhaqaale. Jagooyinka sarsare ee muhiimka ah ee shirkadaha iyo hay’addaha weli ragga ayaa haysta – xitaa dalka Norway. Waana jagooyinkaas kuwa shaqsiga siin kara khibrad uu ku kasban karo jagooyinkaas – maaha jinsiga (maaha dumarnimada), tan baana sababtay in ay yaraadaan haweenka khibradahaas kasbaday – anigayganba ku daroo, si ay u helaan jagooyinkaas. Jagooyinka wanwanaagsan waa nala siiyaa keliya in aan haween nahay.

Dhanka siyaasadda waxaan ognahay in dhawaan ay wadamo badan oo Yurub ah (Jarmalka, Uk, Polan, Holland etc.) oo EU ka tirsan (Norway EU kama tirsana) ay diideen in la sharciyeeyo qoondada haweenka ee 40% oo uu Baarlamaanka EU-da sanado badan ka dooddayey. Hadda wadamada Yurub haweenka jagooyinka sarsare hayya isku celcelis waa 21,2 %.

Dalka Sweden waxaa iyana dhawaan ka hadashay oo diiday qoondada haweenka qasabka ah, hogaamiyaha xisbiga Nya Moderaterna (xisbi 8 sano Sweden ka talinayey haddana ka shaqaynaya in ay talada dib u helaan), Anna Kinberg Batra, oo hadalkeeda sidan u dhigtay:

“Ma doonayo in aan sharciyeeyo kootada. Waxaa mar walba adag oon laga gudbi karin doodda ku saabsan aqoonta, oo si kasta oo uu qofku (haweeneydu) kartidii aqooneed u leeyahay, waxaa mar walba hor taagan su’aasha ah, in shaqada lagu siiyey keliya in aad ka mid tahay jinsiga laga tirada badan yahay (keliya in aad haween tahay)”.

Haddaba khibraddii Norway iyo EU ee qoondada qasabka ah ee haweenka haddii ay taas tahay, su’aasha lays waydiin karo ayaa ah:

  1. In uu waqti xaadirkan yahay waqtigii ku habboonaa ee ay bulshada soomaaliyeed waqti iyo juhdi gelin lahayd arrin sahankeedu sidan yahay? Marka la eego:
    1. In ay Soomaaliya hadda ka soo kabsanayso 25 sano oo dowlad la’aan ah
    2. In lagu hawlan yahay/lagu jaahwareersan yahay hirgelinta nidaamka faderaalka iyo nidaam u helidda xulista goleyaasha shacabka
    3. In aan weli dastuur dhamaystiran la gaarin
    4. In aan awood qaybsiga dalka si rasmi ah loogu heshiin
    5. In ay weli colaado ehli ah jiraan
    6. In uu amnigu liito
    7. In uusan nidaamka qabaliga ah weli diyaar u ahayn in ay haween matalaan si la mida ragga.

Qoondada qasabka ah waa caqabad iyo culays dheeraad ah guud ahaan xaaladda bulshada soomaaliyeed ku sugan tahay xilligan – xal maaha! Waana laga maarmi karay ama dib loo dhigi karay haddii bulshada illaahay swt waafajiso.

W/Q Samsam Cilmi Shabeel,

zamzam_shabeel@hotmail.com

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